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MLA 8th

This Research Guide lists examples of how to cite sources according to the MLA Handbook, 8th edition.

Print Book with Editor

Love, Catherine E., et al., editors. Webster's New World Italian Dictionary. Concise ed., Prentice Hall, 1992.

Editor(s) of Book. Complete Title of Book. Edition (if listed), Publisher, Year of Publication.

Editor(s):

  • If one editor: Hall, Michael, editor. (Last Name, First Name, editor.)
  • If two editors: Hall, Michael, and Rhonda A. Crowell, editors. (Only first editor is Last Name, First Name.)
  • If three or more editors: Hall, Michael, et al., editors. (List first editor only; et al. means "and others.")

Book Title:

  • Use the complete title as found on the title page, including subtitle if any.

Publisher:

  • Include the entire publisher's name, except for business words such as "Company (Co.)," "Incorporated (Inc.)," "Limited (Ltd.)," etc.
  • For an academic (college) press, use U and P to substitute for the words "University" and "Press": Stanford UP; U of Pittsburgh P.
  • If more than one publisher shares equal responsibility for the work, list both names separated by a forward slash: Oxford UP / American Philatelic Society.
  • If interconnected publisher's names are found, list only the division that actually published the book, not the parent company or imprint name (the copyright page will sometimes help determine this information).

Print Book with Author

Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. HarperCollins Publishers, 2005.

Author(s) of Book. Complete Title of Book. Edition (if listed), Publisher, Year of Publication.

Author(s):

  • If one author: Sanford, Jason. (Last Name, First Name.)
  • If two authors: Sanford, Jason, and Rita T. Maxwell. (Only first author is Last Name, First Name.)
  • If three or more authors: Sanford, Jason, et al. (List first author only; et al. means "and others.")

Book Title:

  • Use the complete title as found on the title page, including subtitle if any.

Publisher:

  • Include the entire publisher's name, except for business words such as "Company (Co.)," "Incorporated (Inc.)," "Limited (Ltd.)," etc.
  • For an academic (college) press, use U and P to substitute for the words "University" and "Press": Stanford UP; U of Pittsburgh P.
  • If more than one publisher shares equal responsibility for the work, list both names separated by a forward slash: Oxford UP / American Philatelic Society.
  • If interconnected publisher's names are found, list only the division that actually published the book, not the parent company or imprint name (the copyright page will sometimes help determine this information).

Print Book in a Series

Hirshberg, Edgar W. John D. MacDonald. Twayne Publishers, 1986. Twayne's United States Authors Series 486.

Author(s) or Editor(s) of Book. Complete Title of Book. Edition (if listed), Publisher, Year of Publication. Optional Series Title and Number (if listed).

Author(s):

  • If one author: Sanford, Jason. (Last Name, First Name.)
  • If two authors: Sanford, Jason, and Rita T. Maxwell. (Only first author is Last Name, First Name.)
  • If three or more authors: Sanford, Jason, et al. (List first author only; et al. means "and others.")
  • If editor(s) instead of author(s): Cleaver, Desmond, and Wallace E. Hall, editors. (Follow guidelines above according to number of editors.)

Book Title:

  • Use the complete title as found on the title page, including subtitle if any.

Publisher:

  • Include the entire publisher's name, except for business words such as "Company (Co.)," "Incorporated (Inc.)," "Limited (Ltd.)," etc.
  • For an academic (college) press, use U and P to substitute for the words "University" and "Press": Stanford UP; U of Pittsburgh P.
  • If more than one publisher shares equal responsibility for the work, list both names separated by a forward slash: Oxford UP / American Philatelic Society.
  • If interconnected publisher's names are found, list only the division that actually published the book, not the parent company or imprint name (the copyright page will sometimes help determine this information).

Inclusion of Series Title and Number:

  • If your source is part of a series, including the series title and number (if any) is optional, but may be useful for further identifying your source.

Single Essay, Story, or Poem in an Anthology

Eberstadt, Mary. “Eminem Is Right.” The Blair Reader: Exploring Issues and Ideas, edited by Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell, 9th ed., Pearson, 2017, pp. 181-87.

Author(s) of Single Work (if listed). “Complete Title of Single Work.” Complete Title of Anthology, Editor(s) of Anthology, Edition (if listed), Publisher, Year of Publication, Page(s) Where Single Work Appears.

Author(s) of Individual Work:

  • If one author: Sanford, Jason. (Last Name, First Name.)
  • If two authors: Sanford, Jason, and Rita T. Maxwell. (Only first author is Last Name, First Name.)
  • If three or more authors: Sanford, Jason, et al. (List first author only; et al. means "and others.")

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your individual work, start your citation with the title of the individual work (in quotes).

Book Title:

  • Use the complete title as found on the title page, including subtitle if any.

Editors:

  • Include the words edited by when listing editor(s) of an anthology: edited by Susan A. Radwell.

  • Follow the rules for authors regarding how many editors to list (e.g., edited by Sarah K. Post et al. if your anthology has three or more editors).

Publisher:

  • Include the entire publisher's name, except for business words such as "Company (Co.)," "Incorporated (Inc.)," "Limited (Ltd.)," etc.
  • For an academic (college) press, use U and P to substitute for the words "University" and "Press": Stanford UP; U of Pittsburgh P.
  • If more than one publisher shares equal responsibility for the work, list both names separated by a forward slash: Oxford UP / American Philatelic Society.
  • If interconnected publisher's names are found, list only the division that actually published the book, not the parent company or imprint name (the copyright page will sometimes help determine this information).

Page Numbering:

In certain cases, especially in the case of textbooks, your book may have authors listed instead of editors and may still include a section of readings by multiple other authors. This is the case with the current English text, Everyone's an Author. Cite an individual work from this type of book as follows:

Pinker, Steven. “Mind over Mass Media.” Everyone's an Author with Readings, by Andrea Lunsford et al., 2nd ed., W. W. Norton, 2017, pp. 1029-32.

E-book

Hattenhauer, Darryl. Shirley Jackson's American Gothic. State U of New York P, 2005. Ebook Central, site.ebrary.com.libpro.pittcc.edu/lib/pittcc/detail.action?docID=10594959.

Author(s) or Editor(s) of Book. Complete Title of Book. Edition (if listed), Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Database, URL of E-book.

If you use the "Cite Book" button next to your e-book in Ebook Central (and choose "MLA"), you will get the following citation to copy and paste:

Hattenhauer, Darryl. Shirley Jackson's American Gothic, State University of New York Press, 2003. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/pittcc-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3408604.

There are a number of errors in this citation (highlighted in yellow); here is what it should look like when properly cited in MLA 8th:

Hattenhauer, Darryl. Shirley Jackson's American Gothic. State U of New York P, 2003. Ebook Central, ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/pittcc-ebooks/detail.action?docID=3408604.

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the e-book itself and the information provided with it to find anything that may be missing. Pay special attention to italicization and punctuation. Remember to remove the initial "http://" from the URL.

Note on database names: It is best to use the specific database name if known, but it is also acceptable to use the name of the company that produced the database if you are not sure. For this example, any of these database names would be acceptable: ProQuest Ebook Central, Ebook Central, or ProQuest.

You will also need to check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Author(s):

  • If one author: Sanford, Jason. (Last Name, First Name.)
  • If two authors: Sanford, Jason, and Rita T. Maxwell. (Only first author is Last Name, First Name.)
  • If three or more authors: Sanford, Jason, et al. (List first author only; et al. means "and others.")
  • If editor(s) instead of author(s): Cleaver, Desmond, and Wallace E. Hall, editors. (Follow guidelines above according to number of editors.)

Book Title:

  • Use the complete title as found on the title page, including subtitle if any.

Publisher:

  • Include the entire publisher's name, except for business words such as "Company (Co.)," "Incorporated (Inc.)," "Limited (Ltd.)," etc.
  • For an academic (college) press, use U and P to substitute for the words "University" and "Press": Stanford UP; U of Pittsburgh P.
  • If more than one publisher shares equal responsibility for the work, list both names separated by a forward slash: Oxford UP / American Philatelic Society.
  • If interconnected publisher's names are found, list only the division that actually published the book, not the parent company or imprint name (the copyright page will sometimes help determine this information).

Database Name:

  • If you found your e-book using a multiple-database search and are unsure of the exact database from which you got your e-book, you may use only the database company name (e.g., EBSCOhost; ProQuest).

URL:

  • Look for a "permalink" when copying the URL for your e-book. This is often found under a link symbol or "Share" option that is included with the e-book.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.