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MLA 8th

This Research Guide lists examples of how to cite sources according to the MLA Handbook, 8th edition.

Viewpoint Article from Opposing Viewpoints in Context

Denny, David Anthony. “National Governments Have an Obligation to Refugees.” Refugees, edited by Margaret Haerens, Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://link.galegroup.com/
apps/doc/EJ3010656215/OVIC?u=pittcc&xid=5488630a
.

Author(s) of Article. “Complete Title of Article.” Title of Book That Supplied Article, Editor(s) of Book, Publisher, Year of Publication. Optional Series Name of Book. Optional Original Publication Information for Article. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, URL of Article.

If you click the "Citation Tools" button next to your article and choose "MLA 8th Edition," or use the citation that appears at the bottom of the article, you will get this database-supplied citation:

Denny, David Anthony. "National Governments Have an Obligation to Refugees." Refugees, edited by Margaret Haerens, Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010656215/OVIC?u=pittcc&xid=5488630a. Accessed 26 July 2017. Originally published as "Protecting Refugees a National Obligation," www.america.gov, 8 May 2007.

Access date and original publication information are optional (not required). Check with your instructor to see if you should include this information in a citation of this type. Here is the citation (without the optional information) as it should appear in your Works Cited list:

Denny, David Anthony. “National Governments Have an Obligation to Refugees.” Refugees, edited by Margaret Haerens, Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010656215/OVIC?u=pittcc&xid=5488630a.

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the MLA 8th example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to find anything that may be missing.

You will also need to:

Use the correct (shorter) URL provided with the database citation. The URL that appears in the address bar at the top of your article is too long and complicated to copy and paste. Make sure to use the URL that appears in the citation given at the bottom of the article or when you click the "Citation Tools" button.

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Delete and retype quote marks to match font. Even if you change your font, quote marks may not change automatically. In Times New Roman, they should not be straight.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Most of the "viewpoint" articles in Opposing Viewpoints in Context come from one of the Gale print book series, and are also usually reprints of articles that were originally published in another source. MLA 8th guidelines require you to cite only the source you are actually using, but you may optionally include original publication information if you feel it is important to your research or may be useful to your readers.
  • The example shown is for an article that was originally published on a website, but the original publication information provided with the article is incomplete (and therefore not useful) so it was not included.
  • The book series title is included in the example shown, but this is also optional information.
  • Although the database-supplied citation will likely not conform to current MLA style, it can be useful for gathering some of the citation information you need.

URL:

  • Look for the "permalink" when copying the URL for your article. This may be found by clicking the "Citation Tools" button beside the article (or also found at the bottom of the article).
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Article from Credo Reference

Bertonazzi, Judy M. “Indigenous Peoples Rights.” Global Social Issues: An Encyclopedia, edited by Christopher G. Bates and James Ciment, Routledge, 2013. Credo Reference, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/
content/entry/sharpesi/ indigenous_peoples_rights/0.

Author(s) of Article (if listed). “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Source That Supplied Article, Editor(s) of Reference Source (if listed), Edition of Reference Source (if listed), Publisher of Reference Source (if listed), Year of Publication (if listed). Credo Reference, URL of article.

If you click the "Cite Article" icon appearing at the top of the article (or go down to the bottom of the page and choose "MLA"), you will get this citation:

Bertonazzi, Judy M. "Indigenous Peoples’ Rights." Global Social Issues: An Encyclopedia, edited by Christopher G. Bates, and James Ciment, Routledge, 1st edition, 2013. Credo Reference, http://libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sharpesi/indigenous_peoples_rights/0?institutionId=2413. Accessed 07 Aug 2017.

There are some errors in this database citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look:

Bertonazzi, Judy M. “Indigenous Peoples’ Rights.” Global Social Issues: An Encyclopedia, edited by Christopher G. Bates and James Ciment, Routledge, 2013. Credo Reference, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/sharpesi/indigenous_peoples_rights/0?institutionId=2413.

Note: Including an access date is not incorrect but is optional, especially for an article appearing in a database. Including an edition number is also optional, but it is incorrect to add an edition number for a book that is a 1st edition.

If you use the "Cite Article" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary; make sure to eliminate the beginning "http" part of the URL.

You will also need to:

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Delete and retype quote marks to match font. Even if you change your font, quote marks may not change automatically. In Times New Roman, they should not be straight.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Articles in Credo Reference come from a variety of print and online reference sources; publication information included with the articles is sometimes missing some core elements. You do not need to worry about publication information that is not listed; record what you see and skip the rest.
  • Author information, if listed, may be found at the very end of the article.
  • The example shown is for an article that came from an online reference book source; use the Article Example or Book Example that applies to your type of source for additional help.

URL:

  • Look for the "permalink" when copying the URL for your article. This may be found by clicking on the "Cite Article" (quotation marks) icon at the top of the article.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Article from Global Road Warrior

“Portugal: Cuisine Overview.” Global Road Warrior, www.globalroadwarrior.com/portugal/national-cuisine.html.

Author(s) of Article (if listed other than as World Trade Press). “Title of Article.Name of Database, URL of Article.

If you copy and paste the citation that appears when clicking the "Cite This Document" button, this is the citation you will get:

World Trade Press. "Portugal: Cuisine Overview." Global Road Warrior, 1 February 2021, https://www.globalroadwarrior.com/portugal/national-cuisine.html.

There are a number of errors in this citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look in MLA 8th:

“Portugal: Cuisine Overview.” Global Road Warrior, www.globalroadwarrior.com/portugal/national-cuisine.html.

If you use the database-supplied citation, compare it carefully to the MLA 8th example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to find anything that is missing.

You may also need to:

Check for accurate author information. Many articles in Global Road Warrior do not list a specific author. World Trade Press, the publisher of the database, should not be listed as the author. Check at the end of your article to see if a "writer" is listed. If not, begin your citation with the title of the article.

Note the supplied date. Date of access should never be used as the publication date.

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Delete and retype quote marks to match font. Even if you change your font, quote marks may not change automatically. In Times New Roman, they should not be straight.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Publication information in this database is limited at best, and the database-supplied citations contain many errors. Look at the end of the article itself for any additional publication information (especially for a specific "writer" of the article) .
  • The example shown is for an article produced by the database publisher, World Trade Press, with no specific author (writer) listed. If you do find a specific author for your article, use this citation format: :

Waller, Cam. “Portugal: Music Overview.” Global Road Warrior, https://www.globalroadwarrior.com/portugal/music-overview.html.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start your citation with the article title.
  • Do not list "World Trade Press" as an author name.

No Publication Date:

  • Global Road Warrior does not tend to list actual publication dates for its individual articles, so no publication date is required for your citation in this case.
  • Do not use the copyright date of the database itself (usually listed at the bottom of the screen as a range: 1993-2021).
  • Do not use the date of access as the date of publication (make sure to remove the access date from the database-supplied citation if you are copying and pasting).

Optional Access Date:

  • You may add your date of access after the URL if you feel it might be important (especially if no publication date is listed for your article), but it is not necessary for a library database article. If you do want to add an access date, use this format:

“Portugal: Cuisine Overview.” Global Road Warrior, https://www.globalroadwarrior.com/portugal/national-cuisine.html. Accessed 1 Feb. 2021.

URL:

  • As Global Road Warrior does not provide the recommended "permalinks" for their articles, you will need to copy and paste the URL from your web browser, or use the correct portion of the one included in the database-supplied citation.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Article Reprint from Gale Literature Resource Center or Gale Literature Criticism

Parrish, Timothy L. “Imagining Slavery: Toni Morrison and Charles Johnson.” Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Janet Witalec, vol. 163, Gale, 2003. Gale Literature Resource Center, link.gale.com/apps/doc/H1100044689/LitRC?u=nclivepitcc&sid=LitRC&xid=6ab353df. Originally published in Studies in American Fiction, vol. 25, no. 1, Spring 1997, pp. 81-100.

Author(s) of Article. “Complete Title of Article.” Title of Gale Reference Source That Supplied Article, Editor(s) of Gale Reference Source, Volume of Gale Reference Source, Publisher, Year of Publication. Name of Database, URL of article. Optional Original Publication Information for Article.

If you copy and paste your citation using the "Citation Tools" button next to your article (or from the citation that appears at the bottom of the article), you will get the following:

Parrish, Timothy L. "Imagining Slavery: Toni Morrison and Charles Johnson." Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Janet Witalec, vol. 163, Gale, 2003. Gale Literature Resource Center, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/H1100044689/LitRC?u=nclivepitcc&sid=LitRC&xid=6ab353df. Accessed 29 Aug. 2019. Originally published in Studies in American Fiction, vol. 25, no. 1, Spring 1997, pp. 81-100.

To fix the highlighted errors, you will need to remove the "https://" from the URL that appears, and delete and retype the straight quote marks to match your font (usually Times New Roman). Access date and original publication information are both optional; check with your instructor to see if you should include this information in a citation of this type. Here is the citation (without the access date) as it should appear in your Works Cited list:

Parrish, Timothy L. “Imagining Slavery: Toni Morrison and Charles Johnson.” Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Janet Witalec, vol. 163, Gale, 2003. Gale Literature Resource Center, link.gale.com/apps/doc/H1100044689/LitRC?u=nclivepitcc&sid=LitRC&xid=6ab353df. Originally published in Studies in American Fiction, vol. 25, no. 1, Spring 1997, pp. 81-100.

Note: If your article is from Gale Literature Criticism, you may include the article page numbers that appear in your e-book volume. Insert page-range information after the publication year and before the database information, as follows:

Gale, 2003, pp. 243-51. Gale Literature Criticism,

You will also need to:

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Many of the articles in Gale Literature Resource Center and Gale Literature Criticism are reprints of articles that were originally published in another source. MLA 8th guidelines require you to cite only the source you are actually using, but you may optionally include original publication information if you feel it is important to your research or may be useful to your readers.
  • The example shown is for an article that was originally published in a journal; however, use the Article Example or Book Example that applies to your type of source for additional help in providing original publication information.

URL:

  • Look for the "permalink" when copying the URL for your article. This may be found by clicking the "Citation Tools" button beside the article, or looking at the bottom of the article.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Article from Biography Reference Center

Bradley, Michael R. “Richard Petty.” Great Athletes, Salem Press, 2001, pp. 1998-2001. Biography Reference Center, search.ebscohost.com.libpro.pittcc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=b6h&AN=5384068&site=brc-live.

Author(s) of Article (if listed). “Title of Article.” Title of Reference Source That Supplied Article, Editor(s) of Reference Source (if listed), Edition of Reference Source (if listed), Publisher of Reference Source (if listed), Year of Publication (if listed), Page(s) Where Article Appears in Reference Source (if listed). Biography Reference Center, URL of article.

Currently, you can click on the "Cite this article" icon and look for "MLA" to get the database-supplied citation:

"Richard Petty." Great Athletes (Salem Press), Oct. 2001, p. 1998. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=b6h&AN=5384068&site=brc-live.

There are a number of errors in this database citation (highlighted in yellow), including some missing information. A month (Oct.) should not be included with publication information for an article that comes from a book source; more than one page is indicated in the information supplied with the article. Listing the database provider EBSCOhost instead of the actual database name (Biography Reference Center) is permitted in MLA 8th, but it is preferable to list the database name if known. Here is how the citation should look in your Works Cited list:

Bradley, Michael R. “Richard Petty.” Great Athletes, Salem Press, 2001, pp. 1998-2001. Biography Reference Center, search.ebscohost.com.libpro.pittcc.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=b6h&AN=5384068&site=brc-live.

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to find anything that is missing, such as author information and complete page range.

You will also need to:

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Delete and retype quote marks to match font. Even if you change your font, quote marks may not change automatically. In Times New Roman, they should not be straight.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Articles in Biography Reference Center come from a variety of print and online reference sources; publication information included with the articles is often missing several core elements. You do not need to worry about publication information that is not listed; record what you see and skip the rest.
  • The example shown is for an article that came from a print book source; however, use the Article Example or Book Example that applies to your type of source for additional help.

URL:

  • Look for the "permalink" when copying the URL for your article. This may be found in the "Citation" information at the top of the article.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Article from SIRS Issues Researcher

“Human Rights Timeline.” SIRS Timelines, ProQuest, 2018. SIRS Issues Researcher, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://explore-proquest-com.libpro.pittcc.edu/sirsissuesresearcher/document/2250549556?accountid=13209.

Author(s) of Article (if not ProQuest Staff). “Title of Article.Title of Reference Source That Supplied Article (if listed), Publisher of Reference Source (if listed), Date of  Publication (if listed). Name of Database, URL of Article.

If you copy and paste the citation that appears when clicking the "Cite" option, this is the citation you will get:

Staff, ProQuest. Human Rights Timeline. ProQuest, Ann Arbor, 2018. SIRS Issues Researcher, https://libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://explore-proquest-com.libpro.pittcc.edu/sirsissuesresearcher/document/2250549556?accountid=13209.

There are a number of errors in this citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look in MLA 8th:

“Human Rights Timeline.” SIRS Timelines, ProQuest, 2018. SIRS Issues Researcher, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://explore-proquest-com.libpro.pittcc.edu/sirsissuesresearcher/document/2250549556?accountid=13209.

If you use the database-supplied citation, compare it carefully to the MLA 8th example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to find anything that is missing.

You will also need to:

Check for accurate author information. Many articles in SIRS are written by non-specific "staff"; this should not be listed for authorship credit. In this case, begin your citation with the title of the article.

Check spacing and font. Citations may not paste with the correct font. Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct.

Delete and retype quote marks to match font. Even if you change your font, quote marks may not change automatically. In Times New Roman, they should not be straight.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Publication information in this database is limited at best, especially for those articles produced by the ProQuest/SIRS staff. The database-supplied citations are little help. Look at what information is provided after the article title for clues on the publication author, source, and date.
  • The example shown is for a reference article produced by ProQuest staff, but most articles found in SIRS Issues Researcher come from outside magazines, newspapers, websites, or books. If you use a source that was not produced by the ProQuest staff, cite it in the format appropriate to the source. See the Article Example or Book Example that applies to your type of source for additional help.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start your citation with the article title.
  • You do not need to list "ProQuest Staff" as an author name.

No Publication Date:

  • If you cannot find an actual publication date for your article, skip it and move on to the database name.

Optional Access Date:

  • You may add your date of access after the URL if you feel it might be important, and especially if no publication date is listed for your article.

URL:

  • As SIRS does not provide the recommended "permalinks" for their articles, you will need to copy and paste the URL from your web browser, or use the correct portion of the one included in the database-supplied citation.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.