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Reconstruction Era Essay

Resources for Zarnesky's ECHS History Class Project

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th ed.: Author-Date

IMPORTANT! You should always cite your sources following your instructor's requirements! The following information is to help you along, but does not in any way take priority over how your teacher wants your sources cited. 

In-Text Citations = Parenthetical Citations

When using the author-date references system, you signal that you've used a source by placing a parenthetical citation (in-text citation) next to the reference to it in your paper. Include the author's last name, year, and relevant page numbers.

  • Example: (Davis 2023, 150)
  • No page numbers:  (Davis 2023)
  • No author; Use the first four words of the title: (Answering the Difficult Questions 2023, 150)
  • No author, no page numbers: (Answering the Difficult Questions 2023)


List all sources in a References list at the end of your paper in alphabetical order with a hanging indent. This list should include every source you cited in a parenthetical citation within your paper. 

Single space each entry with one double-space between each.

Citation Help & Examples

Sources from Reference Databases

Basic pieces of information needed:

  • Author: Davis, Angela. 

  • Year of Publication: 2023. 

  • Title of the Essay: “Answering the Difficult Questions.” 

  • Title of the Book: In The Encyclopedia of Library Wisdom,  

  • Editor: edited by Shannon Zarnesky and Wynn Whittington,  

  • Page numbers of the essay, end with a period: 154-55. 

  • Edition only if it is not the first edition: 2nd ed. 

  • Place of Publication: Greenville:  

  • Publisher: Bulldog Press. 

  • Title of Database: Credo Reference


Putting all the pieces together:

Davis, Angela. 2023. “Answering the Difficult Questions.” In The Encyclopedia of Library Wisdom, edited by Shannon Zarnesky and Wynn Whittington, 154-55. 2nd ed. Greenville: Bulldog Press. Credo Reference.

U.S. Constitution - Amendments

The US Constitution should only be cited in parenthetical (in-text) citations within the text of your paper. In many cases, you can just include the identifying information within the text itself. 

In-text Citation:

(US Constitution, amend. 14, sec. 2) 

Or, if you mention it within the text, you do not need an in-text citation:

Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution states that...  


Basic Templates


Creator Last name, First name. Year. Title (or Untitled). Medium. Museum Name, Location. URL or Database Name.

Graphic Arts, Ads, Maps, Cartoons:

Creator Last name, First name. Year. "Title of Cartoon." Title of Periodical/Newspaper/Magazine. URL or Database Name.

Image from a Published Source (Book) 

Citation Copied from U.S. History: Gale in Context 


Corrected Citation:

“Political Cartoon Illustrating the Intimidation Tactics Used by Southern Democrats After the Civil...” 1876. In Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court of the United States, edited by David S. Tanenhaus. Vol. 3. Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference USA, 2008. Gale in Context: U.S. History

In-text Citation:

(Political Cartoon Illustrating the Intimidation 1876)


(Political Cartoon...Intimidation Tactics 1876)

Image from an Online Collection

Basic Template: 

Photographer/Artist/Creator Last Name, First Name. Year. Title (or Untitled). Medium. Institution Name, Location. URL. 

In-Text Citation:

(Photographer Last Name Year) 

Image from the Library of Congress; Medium that we are viewing is online, not the original.


Reference List Citation:

Smith, William Morris. 1863-66. [District of Columbia. Company E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, at Fort Lincoln]. Digital file from original negative. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C.

In-Text Citation:

(Smith 1863-66)

Newspaper Article from a Database

Basic Template:

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. “Title of Article.” Title of Newspaper, January 1, 2023. Title of Database.

In-Text Citation:

(Author Last Name Year, Page #)

If a newspaper article is unsigned (does not list an author), the title of the newspaper goes in place of the author.



The Weekly Sentinel (Raleigh, NC). 1866. “The Radical Reconstruction Plan.” May 8, 1866. Historic North Carolina Digital Newspaper Collection.

In-text Citation:

(Weekly Sentinel 1866, 3) 

NOTE: Page numbers are not listed in the citation, but if you know it, you would put it in the in-text citation.

Sentinel article lists the page number: 3


For sources that include a date of publication or revision, use the year of publication in the reference list entry. Repeat the year with the month and day to avoid any confusion. If there is no personal author, start with the page title or site sponsor. If there is no last modified date, use n.d. Only include an access date if no date of publication or revision can be determined.

Basic Template:

Author Last name, First name. Last modified Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day, Year. URL.



Franklin, Harper. 2020. "1860-1869." Fashion History Timeline. Last modified August 18, 2020.

In-text Citation:

(Franklin 2020)



Google. 2016. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016. 

In-text Citation:

(Google 2016) 



Yale University. n.d. “About Yale: Yale Facts.” Accessed May 1, 2017.

In-text Citation:

(Yale University n.d.)