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APA

This Research Guide lists examples of how to cite sources according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th edition.

Journal Article With DOI (Online)

Teixeira, J. A., Castro, T. G., Grant, C. C., Wall, C. R., Silva Castro, A. L. da, Francisco, R. P. V., . . . Marchioni, D. M. (2018). Dietary patterns are influenced by socio-demographic conditions of women in childbearing age: A cohort study of pregnant women. BMC Public Health, 18, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5184-4

Author(s) of Article. (year of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue if all issues start on p. 1), page range of article if available. https//doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx or http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx or doi:10.xxxxxxxx

If you find your article in a library database, you can click on the "Cite" button next to your article and choose "APA" (or "APA 6th"). For this example, you would get the following citation:

Juliana, A. T., Castro, T. G., Grant, C. C., Wall, C. R., Ana Lúcia da, S. C., Rossana Pulcineli, V. F., . . . Marchioni, D. M. (2018). Dietary patterns are influenced by socio-demographic conditions of women in childbearing age: A cohort study of pregnant women. BMC Public Health, 18 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5184-4

There are a number of errors in this database-supplied citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look:

Teixeira, J. A., Castro, T. G., Grant, C. C., Wall, C. R., Silva Castro, A. L. da, Francisco, R. P. V., . . . Marchioni, D. M. (2018). Dietary patterns are influenced by socio-demographic conditions of women in childbearing age: A cohort study of pregnant women. BMC Public Health, 18, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5184-4

Note that this example shows an article written by more than seven authors. See the "Helpful Tips" tab for more information on author names.

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to verify anything that looks incorrect.

You will also need to:

Check the author names. In APA style, database-supplied citations will often confuse first names with last names, will  include the wrong part of compound names, or will add unneeded components (such as PhD). Look at the author information that appears with the article itself to help determine the correct way to cite an author's name.

Check title capitalization. Database-supplied citations will often give article titles in all capital letters, or will have other capitalization errors. In APA style, article titles should have only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms capitalized.

Make sure page numbers are complete. In some databases, only the first page number (or no page number) appears in citation information. If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify complete page range. (For online-only articles that are available in PDF form, use the page numbers that correspond with the PDF pages.)

Check DOI format. Although there are three acceptable ways to write DOI numbers in APA style (see the "Helpful Tips" tab), database-supplied citations will often include extra unneeded parts at the beginning of the DOI number.

Check font, spacing, and punctuation. Citations may not paste with the correct font and/or the font that matches the rest of your paper (APA prefers Times New Roman, 12-point font). Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct. Punctuation (commas, periods) may be missing or may not be correct.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

Publication Date for Journal Articles:

  • For articles that appear in a journal, use only the year of publication, even if more specific date information is available.
  • If you are not sure if your article comes from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, look at the database information supplied with the article, or do a web search using the publication title in quotes to look for clues on the publication's homepage.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives. 

Journal Name:

  • Italicize the name of your journal: African Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Use the complete name of your journal, including initial articles: The Journal of Finance.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Social Work With Groups.
  • If the official name of your journal includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: Gender & History.

Volume/Issue Information:

  • Include the volume number for all journal articles, written in Arabic numerals: 27; 459.
  • If your journal starts all issues on page 1, include the issue number in parentheses with no space beside the volume number, in Arabic numerals: (4). (If you are unsure how your journal numbers pages, APA suggests that you do a web search to find the journal's homepage, and then check the table of contents of several issues to determine this.)
  • Note that the volume number is italicized, but the parenthetical issue number is not: 27(4).

Page Numbers for Journal Articles:

  • Do not use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for journal articles. Use full digits for the entire page-number range (2-10; 86-89; 208-247; 1009-1033).
  • If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify correct page-number range.
  • For online-only articles available individually in PDF version, use the page numbers of the PDF.

Database Information:

  • If you found your article through a library database, do not include any database information (such as the name of the database or the URL assigned to the article in the database) unless your instructor directs you otherwise.

DOI Number:

  • In APA style, the DOI number is always preferred over a URL. There are three acceptable formats for the DOI number:
    • https://doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx
    • http://dx.doi.org/10.xxxxxxxx
    • doi:10.xxxxxxxx
  • Use the DOI format that appears with your article (or, if you see multiple DOI formats for the same article, choose the one that begins with "https://" if it is one of the choices).
  • Make sure you are not including anything extra at the beginning of your DOI, especially if you are copying and pasting a citation from a database.
  • If you do not immediately see a DOI number for your journal article, APA recommends you look elsewhere to find it:
    • Do a web search for the article title (exact title, in quotes) in Google or another search engine. (There is often more than one version of an online article, so make sure you have the right one.)
    • Search in search.crossref.org (for best results for database articles, copy and paste the whole citation from the database, stopping before any URL information).
    • Search in the Library’s Summon Search box (using the article title in quotes).
    • Click on the CrossMark symbol at the top of the article in PDF format, if this is available.

Journal Article Without DOI (Online)

Diehl, D. C., Sloan, N. L., Galindo-Gonzalez, S., Bartels, W.-L., Dourte, D. R., Furman, C., & Fraisse, C. W. (2015). Toward engagement in climate training: Findings from interviews with agricultural extension professionals. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 30(1), 25-50. Retrieved from http://journalofruralsocialsciences.org

Author(s) of Article. (year of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue if all issues start on p. 1), page range of article if available. Retrieved from URL for homepage of journal or direct URL if article cannot be searched through homepage

If you find your article in a library database, you can click on the "Cite" button next to your article and choose "APA" (or "APA 6th"). For this example, you would get the following citation:

Diehl, D. C., Galindo-Gonzalez, S., Dourte, D. R., Fraisse, C. W., Sloan, N. L., Bartels, W., & Furman, C. (2015). TOWARD ENGAGEMENT IN CLIMATE TRAINING: FINDINGS FROM INTERVIEWS WITH AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROFESSIONALS. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 30(1), 25-50. Retrieved from https://libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1695036866?accountid=13209

There are a number of errors in this database-supplied citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look:

Diehl, D. C., Sloan, N. L., Galindo-Gonzalez, S., Bartels, W.-L., Dourte, D. R., Furman, C., & Fraisse, C. W. (2015). Toward engagement in climate training: Findings from interviews with agricultural extension professionals. Journal of Rural Social Sciences, 30(1), 25-50. Retrieved from http://journalofruralsocialsciences.org

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to verify anything that looks incorrect.

You will also need to:

Check the author names: In APA style, database-supplied citations will often confuse first names with last names, will  include the wrong part of compound names, or will add unneeded components (such as PhD). Look at the author information that appears with the article itself to help determine the correct way to cite an author's name.

Check title capitalization. Database-supplied citations will often give article titles in all capital letters, or will have other capitalization errors. In APA style, article titles should have only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms capitalized.

Make sure page numbers are complete. In some databases, only the first page number (or no page number) appears in citation information. If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify complete page range. (For online-only articles that are available in PDF form, use the page numbers that correspond with the PDF pages.)

Check "retrieved from" URL. If you are sure that your article does not have a DOI number assigned to it (see "Helpful Tips" tab for more on this), APA says to use the URL for your journal's homepage (unless the article is not searchable through the homepage). The database-supplied citation will usually list the database URL, so this is something you will most likely have to change.

Check font, spacing, and punctuation. Citations may not paste with the correct font and/or the font that matches the rest of your paper (APA prefers Times New Roman, 12-point font). Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct. Punctuation (commas, periods) may be missing or may not be correct.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

Publication Date for Journal Articles:

  • For articles that appear in a journal, use only the year of publication, even if more specific date information is available.
  • If you are not sure if your article comes from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, look at the database information supplied with the article, or do a web search using the publication title in quotes to look for clues on the publication's homepage.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives. 

Journal Name:

  • Italicize the name of your journal: African Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Use the complete name of your journal, including initial articles: The Journal of Finance.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Social Work With Groups.
  • If the official name of your journal includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: Gender & History.

Volume/Issue Information:

  • Include the volume number for all journal articles, written in Arabic numerals: 27; 459.
  • If your journal starts all issues on page 1, include the issue number in parentheses with no space beside the volume number, in Arabic numerals: (4). (If you are unsure how your journal numbers pages, APA suggests that you do a web search to find the journal's homepage, and then check the table of contents of several issues to determine this.)
  • Note that the volume number is italicized, but the parenthetical issue number is not: 27(4).

Page Numbers for Journal Articles:

  • Do not use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for journal articles. Use full digits for the entire page-number range (2-10; 86-89; 208-247; 1009-1033).
  • If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify correct page-number range.
  • For online-only articles available individually in PDF version, use the page numbers of the PDF.

Database Information:

  • If you found your article through a library database, do not include any database information (such as the name of the database or the URL assigned to the article in the database) unless your instructor directs you otherwise.

DOI Versus URL:

  • In APA style, the DOI number is always preferred over a URL, and if you do not immediately see a DOI number for your journal article, APA recommends you look elsewhere to find it:
    • Do a web search for the article title (exact title, in quotes) in Google or another search engine. (There is often more than one version of an online article, so make sure you have the right one.)
    • Search in search.crossref.org (for best results for database articles, copy and paste the whole citation from the database, stopping before any URL information).
    • Search in the Library’s Summon Search box (using the article title in quotes).
    • Click on the CrossMark symbol at the top of the article in PDF format, if this is available.
  • If you do find a DOI number, see the example for "Journal Article With DOI" for more information on formatting.
  • If you are sure that no DOI has been assigned to your article, APA says to list your journal's homepage for the "retrieved from" URL. You may have to do a web search to find the URL for the journal's homepage.
  • Use the exact article URL only if the article is not searchable through the journal's homepage:
    • If using the database-assigned URL for your article, look for the "permalink" when copying the URL. This is often found under a "link" symbol to the side of the article, or on the "Abstract/Details" page that comes with the article.
  • Do not put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Your instructor may have his/her own preference for what to include when there is no DOI number, so it is best to check if you are unsure.

Journal Article Without DOI (Print)

Boucaut, R., & Howson, D. (2018). Teaching safe patient handling skills using a peer approach. Radiologic Technology, 90, 20-30.

Author(s) of Article. (year of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Journal, volume(issue if all issues start on p. 1), page range of article.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

Publication Date for Journal Articles:

  • For articles that appear in a journal, use only the year of publication, even if more specific date information is available. 

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives.

Journal Name:

  • Italicize the name of your journal: African Journal of Business Ethics.
  • Use the complete name of your journal, including initial articles: The Journal of Finance.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Social Work With Groups.
  • If the official name of your journal includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: Gender & History.

Volume/Issue Information:

  • Include the volume number for all journal articles, written in Arabic numerals: 27459.
  • If your journal starts all issues on page 1, include the issue number in parentheses with no space beside the volume number, in Arabic numerals: (4). (If you are unsure how your journal numbers pages, APA suggests that you do a web search to find the journal's homepage, and then check the table of contents of several issues to determine this.)
  • Note that the volume number is italicized, but the parenthetical issue number is not: 27(4).

Page Numbers for Journal Articles:

  • Do not use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for journal articles. Use full digits for the entire page-number range (2-10; 86-89; 208-247; 1009-1033).

Website Article

Dimitrijevic, I. (2018, November 1). 50 New Year’s resolution ideas and how to achieve each of them. Retrieved from https://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/50-new-years-resolution-ideas-and-how-achieve-each-them.html

Author(s) of Article. (date of publication). Complete title of article. Retrieved from exact URL of article

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for a news article that would typically have an individual author, start with the article's title, and put the date information in parentheses after the title:
    • Growing up homeless. (2009, May 22). Retrieved from https://www.cbsnews.com/news/growing-up-homeless/

Corporate Author:

  • If your website is sponsored by an association, agency, or other organization (usually a site with a ".org" or ".gov" in the web address), and no individual author is listed, your article may be considered to be content that is authored by the organization. In this case, use the organization's name in place of an individual author name:
    • American Heart Association. (2016, October 31). What is high blood pressure? Retrieved from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/the-facts-about-high-blood-pressure/what-is-high-blood-pressure

  • If your organization is a division of a government agency, the standard format is to list the parent agency or agencies also. As this often results in a long list of agency names that becomes too unwieldy to cite in your text, APA does allow you to cite only the main agency most responsible for the content, as long as no confusion will result. An article from the NIMH site for example, can therefore be cited either of these two ways:
    • National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, May). Suicide. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml

    • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, May). Suicide. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/suicide.shtml

Publication Date:

  • For web articles that do not come from an online journal, include as much publication date information (in parentheses) as is available: (2018, May 4) or (2016, December) or (2009).
  • Do not abbreviate the name of months.
  • Use the "last updated" or "last reviewed" date if that is the only date information available.
  • Note that an article's publication date is not the same as the website's copyright date, which usually consists of a year or range of years, and is typically found at the bottom of the webpage beside a copyright "©" symbol.

No Publication Date:

  • If you cannot find a publication date for your article, put "n.d." in parentheses where the date would normally go:
    • National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Suicide prevention. Retrieved from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/suicide-prevention/index.shtml

"Retrieved From" URL:

  • For web articles that do not come from an online magazine or newspaper and therefore are not easily searchable through the website's homepage, use the exact article URL (found above the article in the web browser's address bar, or by clicking on any "permalink" or "share" icons next to the article).
  • Do not put a period at the end of your URL.

Magazine Article (Online)

Hayes, S. C. (2018, July/August). From loss to love. Psychology Today, 51(4), 72-74, 90. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us

Author(s) of Article. (date of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Magazine, volume(issue) if listed, pages of article if listed. Retrieved from URL for homepage of magazine or exact URL if article cannot be searched through the homepage

If you find your article in a library database, you can click on the "Cite" button next to your article and choose "APA" (or "APA 6th"). For this example, you would get the following citation:

Hayes, S. C., P.H.D. (2018, Jul). FROM LOSS TO LOVE. Psychology Today, 51, 72-79,90. Retrieved from https://libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/2061872240?accountid=13209

There are a number of errors in this database-supplied citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look:

Hayes, S. C. (2018, July/August). From loss to love. Psychology Today, 51(4), 72-74, 90. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to verify anything that looks incorrect.

You will also need to:

Check the author names. In APA style, database-supplied citations will often confuse first names with last names, will  include the wrong part of compound names, or will add unneeded components (such as PhD). Look at the author information that appears with the article itself to help determine the correct way to cite an author's name.

Check title capitalization. Database-supplied citations will often give article titles in all capital letters, or will have other capitalization errors. In APA style, article titles should have only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms capitalized.

Make sure page numbers are complete. In some databases, only the first page number (or no page number) appears in citation information. If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify complete page range. (For online-only articles that are available in PDF form, use the page numbers that correspond with the PDF pages.)

Check font, spacing, and punctuation. Citations may not paste with the correct font and/or the font that matches the rest of your paper (APA prefers Times New Roman, 12-point font). Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct. Punctuation (commas, periods) may be missing or may not be correct.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start with the article's title, and put the date information in parentheses after the title:
    • Fat chance: Saturated fats have no link to heart disease. (2015, August 12). Newsweek. Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com

Publication Date for Magazine Articles:

  • For articles that come from a magazine, include as much publication date information (in parentheses) as is available: (2018, May 4) or (2016, December) or (2012, March/April)  or (2009).
  • Do not abbreviate the name of months.
  • If you are not sure if your article comes from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, look at the database information supplied with the article, or do a web search using the publication title in quotes to look for clues on the publication's homepage.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives.

Magazine Name:

  • Italicize the name of your magazine: Men's Health.
  • Use the complete name of your magazine, including initial articles: The New Yorker.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Real Living With Multiple Sclerosis.
  • If the official name of your magazine includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: Better Homes & Gardens.

Volume/Issue Information:

  • Include the volume number, if listed, written in Arabic numerals: 27; 459.
  • If your magazine starts all issues on page 1 (as most magazines do), include the issue number, if listed, in parentheses with no space beside the volume number, in Arabic numerals: (4).
  • Note that the volume number is italicized, but the parenthetical issue number is not: 27(4).
  • If you cannot find volume/issue information for your article, put a period after the magazine name, or after the page numbers if those are available.

Page Numbers for Magazine Articles:

  • Do not use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for magazine articles. Use full digits for the entire page-number range (2-10; 86-89; 208-247; 1009-1033). If your article continues on a non-consecutive page (or pages), list all pages, separated by commas: 8-12, 14, 29.
  • If a PDF (page image) version of the article is available, use that to verify correct page-number range and/or any non-consecutive pages. 
  • For online-only articles available individually in PDF version, use the page numbers of the PDF.
  • If you cannot find page numbers for your online article, put a period after volume/issue information (or magazine name if volume/issue is also not available), and move on to the "retrieved from" statement.

Database Information:

  • If you found your article through a library database, do not include any database information (such as the name of the database or the URL assigned to the article in the database) unless your instructor directs you otherwise.

"Retrieved From" URL:

  • For articles from online magazines, which usually have a "search" feature on the homepage of their site, APA prefers that you use the URL for the magazine's homepage instead of the exact URL.
  • If you found your magazine article in a library database, you may have to do a web search to find the URL for the magazine's homepage.
  • Use the exact article URL only if the article is not searchable through the magazine's homepage:
    • If using the database-assigned URL for your article, look for the "permalink" when copying the URL. This is often found under a "link" symbol to the side of the article, or on the "Abstract/Details" page that comes with the article.
  • Do not put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Your instructor may have his/her own preference for what to include in your URL, so it is best to check if you are unsure.

Magazine Article (Print)

de Marneffe, D. (2018, July). It’s okay to be needy. Parents, 93(7), 62, 64.

Author(s) of Article. (date of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Magazine, volume(issue if all issues start on p. 1), pages of article.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start with the article's title, and put the date information in parentheses after the title:
    • Guns. (2018, July 20). Newsweek, 171(2), 41.

Publication Date for Magazine Articles:

  • For articles that come from a magazine, include as much publication date information (in parentheses) as is available: (2018, May 4) or (2016, December) or (2012, March/April)  or (2009).
  • Do not abbreviate the name of months.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives.

Magazine Name:

  • Italicize the name of your magazine: Men's Health.
  • Use the complete name of your journal, including initial articles: The New Yorker.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Real Living With Multiple Sclerosis.
  • If the official name of your magazine includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: Better Homes & Gardens.

Volume/Issue Information:

  • Include the volume number, written in Arabic numerals: 27; 459.
  • If your magazine starts all issues on page 1 (as most magazines do), include the issue number, in parentheses with no space beside the volume number, in Arabic numerals: (4).
  • Note that the volume number is italicized, but the parenthetical issue number is not: 27(4).
  • If they are not obvious (on the cover or with the table of contents), the volume and issue number for a print magazine is often found in a publication statement printed somewhere inside the magazine itself.

Page Numbers for Magazine Articles:

  • Do not use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for magazine articles.
  • Use full digits for the entire page-number range (2-10; 86-89; 208-247; 1009-1033).
  • If your article continues on a non-consecutive page (or pages), list all pages, separated by commas: 8-12, 14, 29.

Newspaper Article (Online)

Petrow, S. (2016, February 9). Opening up about depression. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

Author(s) of Article. (date of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Newspaper. Retrieved from URL for homepage of newspaper or exact URL if article cannot be searched through the homepage

If you find your article in a library database, you can click on the "Cite" button next to your article and choose "APA" (or "APA 6th"). For this example, you would get the following citation:

Petrow, S. (2016, Feb 09). Opening up about depression. New York Times Retrieved from https://libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1763309675?accountid=13209

There are a number of errors in this database-supplied citation (highlighted in yellow). Here is how it should look:

Petrow, S. (2016, February 9). Opening up about depression. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com

If you use the "Cite" feature, compare your citation carefully to the example shown and change as necessary. Look at the information provided with the article itself to verify anything that looks incorrect.

You will also need to:

Check the author names. In APA style, database-supplied citations will often confuse first names with last names, will  include the wrong part of compound names, or will add unneeded components (such as PhD). Look at the author information that appears with the article itself to help determine the correct way to cite an author's name.

Check title capitalization. Database-supplied citations will often give article titles in all capital letters, or will have other capitalization errors. In APA style, article titles should have only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms capitalized.

Check font, spacing, and punctuation. Citations may not paste with the correct font and/or the font that matches the rest of your paper (APA prefers Times New Roman, 12-point font). Spacing between words and/or line spacing may not be correct. Punctuation (commas, periods) may be missing or may not be correct.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start with the article's title, and put the date information in parentheses after the title:
    • Mental health and well-being in America: A view from Capitol Hill. (2018, June 13). The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com

Publication Date for Newspaper Articles:

  • For articles that come from a newspaper, include full publication date information (in parentheses): (2018, January 4)
  • Do not abbreviate the name of months.
  • If you are not sure if your article comes from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, look at the database information supplied with the article, or do a web search using the publication title in quotes to look for clues on the publication's homepage.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives.

Newspaper Name:

  • Italicize the name of your newspaper: Rocky Mount Telegram.
  • Use the complete name of your newspaper, including initial articles: The New York Times.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Palm Beach Daily News.
  • If the official title of your newspaper includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: The News & Observer.

Page Numbers for Newspaper Articles:

  • Use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for newspaper articles. Include any section letters that appear with the page number(s): p. A7; p. 8D.
  • If your article continues on a non-consecutive page (or pages), list all pages, separated by commas: pp. A3-A4, A13.

Database Information:

  • If you found your article through a library database, do not include any database information (such as the name of the database or the URL assigned to the article in the database) unless your instructor directs you otherwise.

"Retrieved From" URL:

  • For articles from online newspapers, which usually have a "search" feature on the homepage of their site, APA prefers that you use the URL for the newspaper's homepage instead of the exact URL.
  • If you found your newspaper article in a library database, you may have to do a web search to find the URL for the newspaper's homepage.
  • Use the exact article URL only if the article is not searchable through the newspaper's homepage.
    • If using the database-assigned URL for your article, look for the "permalink" when copying the URL. This is often found under a "link" symbol to the side of the article, or on the "Abstract/Details" page that comes with the article.
  • Do not put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Your instructor may have his/her own preference for what to include in your URL, so it is best to check if you are unsure.

Newspaper Article (Print)

Stocks, T. (2018, December 19). First responders take part in mass casualty exercise. The Daily Reflector, pp. A1, A7.

Author(s) of Article. (date of publication). Complete title of article. Name of Newspaper, p. or pp. page(s) of article.

Author(s):

  • Standard form (use initials instead of first and middle names):
    • Rita Maxwell is Maxwell, R.
    • Graham B. Souder is Souder, G. B.
    • John Keith Sanford is Sanford, J. K.
    • Dara Haier-Thomas is Haier-Thomas, D.
    • Jo-Beth McNeil is McNeil, J.-B.
    • Seymour Bevins III is Bevins, S., III
    • Travis W. Tamblin Jr. is Tamblin, T. W., Jr.
  • Two authors (use "&" instead of writing out the word "and"):
    • Maxwell, R., & Souder, G. B.
  • Three to seven authors (list all authors; use "&" before the last):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., & Tamblin, T. W., Jr. 
  • More than seven authors (list the first six and last author using an ellipsis [. . .] before the last with no "&"):
    • Maxwell, R., Souder, G. B., Sanford, J. K., Haier-Thomas, D., McNeil, J.-B., Bevins, S., III, . . . Tamblin, T. W., Jr.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your article, start with the article's title, and put the date information in parentheses after the title:
    • PCC basketball coach presented MAIN Man Award. (2018, December 19). The Daily Reflector, p. A7.

Publication Date for Newspaper Articles:

  • For articles that come from a newspaper, include full publication date information (in parentheses): (2018, January 4)
  • Do not abbreviate the name of months.
  • If you are not sure if your article comes from a journal, magazine, or newspaper, look at the database information supplied with the article, or do a web search using the publication title in quotes to look for clues on the publication's homepage.

Article Title:

  • Do not put in quotes. Capitalize only the first word, the first word after a colon or long dash, proper nouns, and acronyms. If you are not sure which words in your title should be capitalized, look at the text of your article for clues:
    • Facts, attitudes, and health reasoning about HIV and AIDS: Explaining the education effect on condom use among adults in sub-Saharan Africa.
    • Foot health education for people with rheumatoid arthritis—Some patient perspectives.

Newspaper Name:

  • Italicize the name of your newspaper: Rocky Mount Telegram.
  • Use the complete name of your newspaper, including initial articles: The New York Times.
  • Capitalize first words, major words, and all words of at least four letters: Palm Beach Daily News.
  • If the official title of your newspaper includes an ampersand [&], use the ampersand: The News & Observer.

Page Numbers for Newspaper Articles:

  • Use p. or pp. in front of page numbers for newspaper articles. Include any section letters that appear with the page number(s): p. A7; p. 8D.
  • If your article continues on a non-consecutive page (or pages), list all pages, separated by commas: pp. A3-A4, A13.