Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
PCC Library Logo

MLA 8th

This Research Guide lists examples of how to cite sources according to the MLA Handbook, 8th edition.

Blog Post

Nestle, Marion. “For the Record: The GMO Labeling Bill.” Food Politics, 24 Aug. 2016, www.foodpolitics.com/2016/08/for-the-record-the-gmo-labeling-bill/. Accessed 28 Aug. 2016.

Author of Post (if listed). “Title of Post.Name of Blog/Website, Publisher(s) of Site (unless same as site name), Date of Post (if listed), URL of Post. Optional Date of Access.

Author:

  • If a screen name alone is listed as the author, start your citation with that as written: LeafyGreens.
  • If a screen name is listed as the author but you also find the author's real name, you may include both with the real name in a parenthesis: LeafyGreens (Judith Greenleaf).
  • If an author's name is listed (with no screen name), start your citation the same as you would for most other sources: Greenleaf, Judith.

No Author:

  • If no author is listed for your post, start your citation with the title of the post.

Publisher:

  • Look for the publisher(s) at the bottom of the webpage (often beside a copyright symbol), or on the “About Us” page on the site.

  • If the publisher of your site is essentially the same as the name of the site, you do not need to include it (e.g., the Fox News site is published by Fox News Network, so no need to include this publisher).

  • If you cannot find a publisher listed on the site, it is likely the same as the site name, so skip it and move on to the date of publication.

  • If more than one publisher appears to share equal responsibility for the site, include all publisher names separated by a forward slash: U of Nebraska / AGBIOS.

No Publication Date:

  • If you cannot find a publication date for your post, skip it and move on to the URL (do not use the site copyright date that is often found at the bottom of the page).

Optional Access Date:

  • As web publications can change or disappear, you may add your date of access after the URL if you feel it might be important, and especially if no publication date is listed:

Chatzky, Jean. “Top 10 Money Tips for Parents." BabyCenter, www.babycenter.com/0_top-10-money-tips-for-parents_10354827.bc. Accessed 28 July 2016.

  • Even if you have a publication date, an online posting may be more likely to disappear than other types of sources, so adding a date of access is probably wise in this case.

URL:

  • Many separate posts may appear on a blog page; click on the title of your particular post to find the URL that will lead to that individual post.
  • Look for a "permalink" when copying the URL for your post. This might be found by clicking on the "Share" option. If you cannot find a permalink, copy the URL from your web browser at the top of your screen.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Entire Website

American Association of Medical Assistants. 1996-2016, www.aama-ntl.org.

Author(s)/Editor(s) of Website (if listed and different from publisher's name). Name of Website. Publisher(s) of Website (unless same as website name), Date or Date Range of Site's Creation (if listed), URL of Website (from homepage). Optional Date of Access.

Publisher:

  • Look for the publisher(s) at the bottom of the webpage (often beside a copyright symbol), or on the “About Us” page on the site.

  • If the publisher of your website is essentially the same as the name of the website, you do not need to include it (e.g., the Fox News site is published by Fox News Network, so no need to include this publisher).

  • If you cannot find a publisher listed on the site, it is likely the same as the website name, so skip it and move on to the date of site creation (if listed).

  • If more than one publisher appears to share equal responsibility for the site, include all publisher names separated by a forward slash: U of Nebraska / AGBIOS.

No Creation Date:

  • If you cannot find a creation date for your site, skip it and move on to the URL (if the site copyright date lists only the current year, this is likely not the date the site was created).

Optional Access Date:

  • As web publications can change or disappear, you may add your date of access after the URL if you feel it might be important, and especially if no creation date is listed for your site:

BabyCenter. www.babycenter.com. Accessed 28 July 2016.

URL:

  • Copy the URL from your web browser at the top of your screen when you are on the homepage of the site.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.

YouTube Video

King, Martin Luther, Jr.  I Have a Dream Speech. YouTube, uploaded by Ilya Gokadze, 28 Aug. 2013, youtu.be/3vDWWy4CMhE. Accessed 28 Aug. 2016.

Creator/Primary Performer(s) of Video (if listed and different from uploader). “Title of Video.YouTube, Uploader of Video, Date of Upload, URL of Video. Optional Date of Access.

Creator/Primary Performer(s):

  • Start your citation with the name(s) of those who are responsible for creating/producing/performing in the video if this information is listed (this is sometimes added to the video itself).
  • Do not include this information if the same person is listed as uploader of the video (in this case, start with the title of the video as it appears on YouTube).

No Creator:

  • If no information is available for those responsible for the actual creation of the video, start your citation with the title of the video.

Uploader:

  • List the name of the person who uploaded the video as the name appears, without changing the capitalization (screen names are often entirely in lowercase letters): iheartmusic

Optional Access Date:

  • As web publications can change or disappear, you may add your date of access after the URL if you feel it might be important, especially if no publication date is listed:

Chatzky, Jean. “Top 10 Money Tips for Parents." BabyCenter, www.babycenter.com/0_top-10-money-tips-for-parents_10354827.bc. Accessed 28 July 2016.

  • Even if you have a publication date, an online posting may be more likely to disappear than other types of sources, so adding a date of access is probably wise in this case.

URL:

  • Look for a "permalink" when copying the URL for your video. This can be found by clicking on the "Share" option. If you cannot find a permalink, copy the URL from your web browser at the top of your screen.
  • Omit the initial "http://" when inserting your URL.
  • Put a period at the end of your URL.
  • Although MLA recommends that you include either a DOI or URL at the end of your citation for all electronic sources, some instructors may prefer that you do not include these. Make sure to check with your instructor if you are unsure.

Single Film through Subscription Service (Netflix, Hulu)

To Kill a Mockingbird. Directed by Robert Mulligan, performance by Gregory Peck, Universal International, 1962. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/1051852.

 Title of Film. Director of Film (optional), Primary Performer(s) of Film (optional), Company with Primary Responsibility for Film, Year of Film's Original Release. Name of Subscription Service, URL of Film (if available). Optional Date of Access.

Finding Citation Information:

  • Most of the needed citation information may be found on the "details" or "overview" page of the film as it appears in your subscription service; any missing information can likely be found in the credits of the film itself.

Optional Arrangement/Inclusion of Contributors:

  • You may arrange the names of those who contributed to the film in a different order from the example shown, or leave them out altogether, depending on the focus of your research. If your focus is on a single performer, for example, you may start your citation with the performer's name and leave out other contributors if they do not figure into your research:

Peck, Gregory, performer. To Kill a Mockingbird. Universal International, 1962. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/1051852.

URL of Film:

  • Copy the URL from your web browser at the top of your screen when you are viewing the film on a computer. (You may have to exit "full screen" mode to see the URL.)
  • If you are viewing the film on a device that does not show a URL (such as on a smart TV or tablet), include only the name of the subscription service:

To Kill a Mockingbird. Directed by Robert Mulligan, performance by Gregory Peck, Universal International, 1962. Netflix.

Optional Access Date:

  • As the availability of items frequently changes in subscription services, you may want to include a date of access for when you viewed the film, especially if you are not able to provide a URL:

To Kill a Mockingbird. Directed by Robert Mulligan, performance by Gregory Peck, Universal International, 1962. Netflix. Accessed 14 Nov. 2016.

Single Film on DVD/Blu-ray

The Bad Seed. Directed by Mervyn LeRoy, performances by Nancy Kelly and Patty McCormack, Warner Brothers Pictures, 1956.

 Title of Film. Director of Film (optional), Primary Performer(s) of Film (optional), Company with Primary Responsibility for Film, Year of Film's Original Release.

Optional Arrangement/Inclusion of Contributors:

  • You may arrange the names of those who contributed to the film in a different order from the example shown, or leave them out altogether, depending on the focus of your research. If your focus is on the film's director, for example, you may start your citation with the director's name and leave out other contributors if they do not figure into your research:

LeRoy, Mervyn, director. The Bad Seed. Warner Brothers Pictures, 1956.

Original Release Date of Film:

  • The year a film is first released is usually different from the release date for the DVD/Blu-ray. Unless you are citing something that is particular to the DVD/Blu-ray version, the film's original release date is more important than the DVD/Blu-ray's release date. Year of original release is usually included on the DVD/Blu-ray's packaging.
  • If you are working with a version of a film that is different from the original and was released on DVD/Blu-ray at a later date, you would likely want to include both dates and any other information that identifies the version you are citing:

Cameron, James, director. The Abyss. 1993. Special ed., Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2002.

Note: The year of original release comes immediately after the film's title.