This guide provides citation information in accordance with guidelines set forth in the new (2021) 9th edition of the MLA Handbook. The 9th edition is very close to the 8th edition in style advice, and serves largely to give a more detailed explanation of what is contained in the 8th. It does, however, include some updated recommendations, particularly in regard to URLs. Please check with your instructor if you are unsure of what exact citation format is preferred for your assignments.
(A period must be placed at the end of the DOI as part of the citation, but will need to be removed if copying and pasting the DOI into a web browser to find the source.)
(A period must be placed at the end of the URL as part of the citation, but will need to be removed if copying and pasting the URL into a web browser to find the source.)
The 9th edition continues to follow the "container" system of citation organization, which asks you to think of your citation as having a number of small parts (core elements) that are arranged to fit in a larger container, a container that has sometimes been placed into an even larger second container. Use only those core elements that apply to your specific source when forming your citation. In many cases, most of the core elements listed below will not be needed. Here is an example of how you would arrange the elements of a journal article you found in a library database:
To form your citation, arrange this information in the order listed, using the punctuation shown:
Bruce, Cicero. “The Ideal Teacher of Literature.” Modern Age, vol.62, no. 1, winter 2020, pp. 5-13. Literary Reference Center Plus, libpro.pittcc.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lkh&AN=141816149&site=ehost-live.